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My country, Romania is situated in southeastern Europe, at the northernmost coast of the Balkan peninsula, bordered by Ukraine and Moldova to the north, Hungary to the northwest, Serbia to the southwest, Bulgaria to the south, and the amazing Black Sea to the east. Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania and Constanta is another big city which is also a port city at the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the natural border of Romania.  Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia, Turkey, and Bulgaria are the countries that border the Black Sea. There are around 17.5 million inhabitants in the Black Sea regions, while 6–8 million tourists visit each year (Vespremeanu & Golumbeanu, 2017).

In my opinion, the Black Sea is among the most beautiful destinations for tourists around the world, luring thousands of tourists from all over the globe with its diverse and unique environment, cultural wealth, historic heritage, and vast variety of leisure options. One of Romania's most breathtaking places is its shoreline: an image of pure nature showing off its valuable gems. The Romanian coastline is 245 kilometers long and it spans from the country's northern border with Ukraine to its southern border with Bulgaria. All across this long stretch are most of its resorts.

The COVID 19 crisis has had a major impact on the hospitality sector in Romania, which has also followed the pattern in Europe. With thousands of employees, restaurants concentrated on deliveries and package orders through their own platforms or partnerships with digital delivery platforms, as well as on new business ventures including the development of partially prepared packages or unique menus for specific occasions (, 2022).

When thinking about the next summer holiday while you`re in Romania, I recommend you should visit the Black Sea for amazing attractions on the coastline and its resorts.

The Black Sea coastline is the perfect setting for sightseeing, sunbathing, or merely taking in the fresh sea air whether you are on vacation or just seeking a short getaway. Beautiful beaches border the coastline, mesmerizing the eye.


                              Image by: MilanMaksovic via

Mamaia Resort- poshest on the Romanian shoreline

Mamaia resort is the largest, busiest, and most popular on the Black Sea shoreline. The controversy about Mamaia is that the resort divided the Romanians into opposing sides: those who genuinely love visiting this resort for all varieties of leisure activities and those who condemn the presence of this resort overflowing with "too posh and fancy". It is considered overpriced for all the facilities offered, yet so many people of all ages spend their holidays throughout the resort. You know you are in the perfect place if you`re loving nightlife. Mamaia resort has the most opulent and poshest clubs on the shoreline. On the northern side of the resort, it is easy to access lively parties and live concerts and the most famous beaches on the black sea`s coast.

The resort is also known as the Ibiza of eastern Europe as it matches the multitude of clubs, and the same atmosphere the whole summer season exactly like Ibiza, the resort is hosting famous electronic music events. The resort is proud to have the Holiday Village( Satul de vacanta) destined for children and families altogether. A major attraction within the Holiday Village is Luna Park which is filled with lights and hosts games for everyone. Little trains, rollercoasters, and hammers are also loved by grown-ups, and if you love admiring the panoramic view of the resort, you can view it from a wheel like London Eye but smaller in size. If you are traveling with children, the Holiday Village is a must-see as it is full of fun and games and provides entertainment facilities for both children as well as young people and parents. Despite rumors that the resort is overpriced, tourists come there year after year.

The Romanian coast, as well as the entire hospitality industry, is suffering. Many employees in the sector lost their jobs as a result of the pandemic, while others chose to change careers. Today, in 2022, despite high wages, few people want to work, according to employers on the coast. The reality is harsh, and seaside patrons go to great lengths to honor their customers, especially considering the lack of staff (Apostol, 2022).

Pagaia, Noi Bistro Cafe, Ristorante Italiano Sarago, Richmond, and Chevalet are just a few of the top five-star restaurants in Mamaia. All have international menus and of course seafood, which are prepared by excellent chefs and served to customers in a fine manner. Some of the hotels with the highest ratings, excellent reviews, and scores greater than 8 on the hotel rating website: Lemon Cliff Luxury, located 50 m from the beach, has a restaurant, bar, and a private beach, as well as free private parking for customers. The 4-star Hotel Opera features an outdoor heated pool, a private beach, and free Wi-Fi. Hotel Excelsior, a 4-star hotel located 30 m from the beach, has a bar and a veranda, as well as free Wi-Fi, air conditioning, and private parking (,2022).

Iaki, another luxurious hotel within Mamaia resort, is owned by Gheorghe Hagi, the King of Romanian Football.

Iaki, Hagi's hotel, is a four-star conference and spa hotel and it has 122 rooms and can accommodate up to 244 people. A room at Hotel Iaki costs 269 euros for a stay of at least five nights from July 2 to August 30. Previously, the rental price was 239 euros, but prices on the coast have increased by 30% since the middle of July (Dragoș, 2021)

Precious gems have yet to be discovered and valued for one ‘s real potential.

We, Romanians, are fortunate to have such beautiful resorts along the Black Sea coast. Each resort appeals to a different type of visitor and is continuously developing to increase tourism revenue.

Visitors have numerous options for accommodation, including villas, hotels, and guesthouses. All resorts are proudly positioned along the Black Sea coastline, and it is a pleasure to see nature provide its reward for us to enjoy.

The Black Sea is not only Romania's jewel, and it is also pure therapy. If you are fortunate enough to visit the Black Sea and enjoy its blessing, the sea itself reveals a hospitable side that you will not see, feel, or hear anywhere else.

                                  Image by: myself via

Between 1987 to 2021, GDP in Romania averaged 114.63 USD Billion, with a top of 284.09 USD Billion in 2021 and a low of 25.12 USD Billion in 1992. According to World Bank figures, Romania's GDP (Gross Domestic Product) was valued 284.09 billion US dollars in 2021. Romania's GDP value equals 0.21 percent of the global economy (Worldbank.,2022).


                                  Image by: Tradingeconomics via World Bank

From 1991 to 2022, Romania's inflation rate averaged 39.58 percent, with a peak of 316.90 percent in November 1993 and a low of -3.50 percent in May 2016.

According to a new assessment by the National Bank of Romania's monetary board, the annual inflation rate in Romania will continue to rise until the end of the year, but at a noticeably slower pace, "thus climbing above the slightly decreasing values envisaged over the short time horizon by the latest medium-term forecast" (BNR., 2022).

Consumer prices in Romania increased by 1.3% in September 2022, reaching 15.9% year on year, contrasted to the 15.1% year on year predicted by the National Bank of Romania (BNR), according to the statistics office INS on October 12 (,2022).

Romania has a 20-million-person population and a GDP of 189 billion US dollars. Annual Average Losses (AALs) are expected to be around 2.2 billion US dollars and 335,000 impacted persons for the entire nation, representing 1.2% of Romania's GDP and 1.7% of its population. Private consumption and a revival in investing were the main drivers of GDP growth in Romania.

Due to robust performance in construction, investment increased significantly, expanding at 17.8%.  While imports remained strong, exports have increased by 3.5 percent as a result of weaker demand in the major export markets (up 7.2 %) (, 2020).

The rate of urbanization of Romania is at 55%, which is quite low when compared to other European countries.

According to recent World Bank report, Romania has been suburbanizing, with the areas immediately around large cities rising by 300,000 people despite massive migration out of the nation. Because of the central government

Demographers continue to classify some of these areas outside of the urban center as rural; however, this trend has yet to be reflected in official population numbers. If this is done, the rate of urbanization might grow to 65.2%. Population losses and geographical changes reflected in shifting densification rates in Romania's growth pole cities, where density levels are decreasing across the board, in some cases by up to 48%.                   

Covid-19 and its impact on the Black Sea

Global pandemics led on by the coronavirus COVID-19's spread were followed by a sudden economic crisis as economies halted to combat the threat to people's lives. Hospitality and tourism as well as leisure and cultural activities, were the two economic sectors in the Black Sea region that were most negatively impacted by the COVID19 outbreak. All of the Black Sea transportation sectors were severely impacted, since aviation and sea communication were completely halted during the first few months of isolation. A major slowdown in the economy also affected other sectors, including the shipping business, the manufacturing sector, and the automobile sector (, 2020).

The Black Sea region was already dealing with several military and diplomatic crises before corona virus. Russia and Ukraine are at war with one another. Turkey and Russia are both engaged in military initiatives in Syria, and despite a long history of cooperation, they are at war over the situation. Russia's military conflict in Ukraine, as well as its annexation of Crimea, has heightened diplomatic tensions with NATO members Romania, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Meanwhile, Turkey is negotiating with the EU on promised financial aid during Europe's ongoing refugee crisis.

Romania is one of NATO and the EU's most vulnerable states as the COVID-19 issue overwhelms Europe (, 2020).

The Black Sea is strategically significant. It connects Europe with the Middle East and serves as the gateway to the Mediterranean Sea. Our current Black Sea conflict is a disagreement between the superpowers of the globe.

Russia`s excessive militarization of the Black Sea Region plays a major position in the Kremlin's long-term vision thanks to historical and cultural grounds, has resulted in Moscow's war on Ukraine.

Even though NATO members Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania are Black Sea littoral nations, the US and NATO have previously lagged in giving a strategic approach on the region. This war provides the United States and NATO with even more cause to develop consistent and intervention strategies to combat Russia's relentless aggression and guarantee the security of the Black Sea Region. With numerous major resolutions, the 2022 NATO Madrid Summit highlighted the Black Sea and the US Senate is considering legislation to improve security in the Black Sea region (, 2022).

The strategic and economic importance of the Black Sea region for Russia is increased by cultural and historical connections, as well as the importance of adjacent states in Russia's security perceptions. Russia spent decades seeking warm-water ports on the Black Sea to overcome the restrictions of its harsh northern environment. Romania aspires to play a regional leadership role for the Black Sea`s security. Latest laws boosted the Romanian defense budget to 2.5% of its GDP, far exceeding the NATO target (, 2022).

Economically, the Black Sea could enhance Russia trade with major European markets while increasing southern Europe's dependence on its substantial oil and gas resources. Russia is looking on the Black Sea as a crucial supplier of access to the Mediterranean Sea for both trade and military deployments. Romania's defense ministry accelerated weapons acquisition and strengthened negotiations with Turkey, Georgia, and Bulgaria this year in October to avoid any spillovers from Russia's conflict against Ukraine. The Black Sea is critical for Romanian fuel and grain shipping (Reuters, 2022).

According to Worldometer's interpretation of the most recent United Nations data as of Saturday, December 10, 2022, the population of Romania is currently 18,925,869 people. The population of Romania is expected to be 19,237,691 at the midpoint of the year (UN, 2022). The whole population of Romania represents 0.25 percent of the world's population (, 2022).

In Constanta, on the Black Sea coastline, there are 283 872 people living there in 2022. On a scale of 1 to 10, Constanta is the 5th most populous of the 266 cities in Romania (, 2022).

A substantial percentage of the working-age population in Romania is over 65 years old, accounting for over 30% of the country population which raises unique health and pension finance challenges (, 2020).

The Black Sea and its coastlines play a key role in Romania's economy by providing greater amounts of income. New ideas and innovation in the hospitality sector have traditionally been located in seaports and coastal cities (, 2020).

The Black Sea is still one of the ecosystems where human activity has had the greatest global impact. Its environment is extremely vulnerable to pressure from such activities due to a mix of characteristics. The region is also impacted by climate change, although this problem has not received enough attention. A successful, contemporary, competitive, and climate-neutral economy is what the EU's strategic long-term strategy, "A clean Planet for all," aims for by 2050. Since combatting the harmful effects of climate change affects everyone, whether in the EU or the region, collaboration on a territorial level becomes crucial to achieving this ambitious target. One of the world's most isolated seas is the Black Sea, which has a surface area of 432 000 km2, a total volume of 547 000 km3, a maximum depth of 2212 m. The Black Sea is highly vulnerable to influence from land-based human activities, and both the coastline and noncoastal states of its basin have an equal impact on its health. The Black Sea's biodiversity is limited as a result of natural factors like pollution and the excessive exploitation of marine resources. The Black Sea is highly exposed to environmental changes, and it is incapable of sustainably regenerate its ecosystem.

Climatic change is likely to influence the rate of growth, forest resources coverage and the variety of species, the range of bacterial agents such as specific parasites, and even the frequency and intensity of extreme weather patterns. The Black Sea ecosystem has suffered as a result of human activity in recent decades. Land and water are used for intensive agriculture, woodlands for the paper industry, and construction, rivers and the sea for navigation and commercial fishing, coastal resources for tourism, energy generation, transportation infrastructure, constructing, and other industries in the Black Sea catchment area. Pipelines are built in coastal and marine areas to meet rising demand for oil and gas (, 2020).

Romanian parliament approved legislation in May 2022 to lower taxes on future income from offshore gas projects after years of debate, in the hopes that this would encourage investment in the Black Sea to extract its enormous reserves. According to a study conducted on behalf of the industry association by consultancy PwC, Romania had the highest effective tax rate on offshore gas production among relevant European states in 2021, at 51%, roughly ten times higher than the average. Although the state's mineral resources agency hasn't auctioned off new concessions in 12 years and has repeatedly delayed plans to tender 28 new perimeters, including six offshore, the new law could encourage more gas exploration (, 2022).

The hospitality sector accounts for 58.2% of Romania's GDP and employs approximately 49% of the working population. Tourism has been thriving in the country in recent years, reaching an all-time high of 13.26 million visitors in 2019. However, due to the COVID-19 global restrictions, the number of tourists staying in Romania fell by 52.3% in 2020. Tourism in Romania attributed for 3.69% of the country's GDP in 2020. The Black Sea makes Romania one of Europe's most popular tourist destinations. Romania's hospitality industry is heavily reliant on tourism (, 2022).

Romania's hospitality industry could benefit from some of these services provided to its customers, including workplaces within hotels/resorts targeted directly at business visitors and potential investors. A further example is digitalized guest experiences, which include hoteliers to create their own apps that will allow customers to view virtual tours of the hotel/resort before booking, or order foods, beverages, or book tours and rate the experience. Eventually, focusing on sustainability, particularly with regard to vegetarian and vegan food products.

The Black Sea resorts on the Romanian coast could benefit from these trends by acquiring not only more visitors, but also revenue from these visits, which could help resorts modernize and upgrade for future customers. To keep up with hospitality trends, resorts will need more capital and investment. The government could help all businesses within the hospitality sector within resorts in digitalizing more, and much more strategies and incentives could help businesses thrive, thereby boosting Romania's economy.


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